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Lavoisier Apparatus
Figure 3: The Apparatus of Antoine Lavoisier.

Astrology and Health
vitalism and humours [part 4]

Over a century later, in 1787, the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier made his important discovery of the principles of combustion. In his most famous experiment, he heated quicksilver and air inside a retort (see Figure 3). He concluded from the experiment that the heated quicksilver reacted with a portion of the air to form a red powder (mercuric oxide) on its surface. He also noted that only a certain portion of the air inside the retort was able to react with the quicksilver in this way.

In further experimentation he found that the portion of air that reacted with the quicksilver also reacted with other heated metals, generated combustion and supported life.

The remaining portion of air that was left after combustion did not support life. He called the portion of the air that supported life oxygen and the portion that did not support life, azote. Azote was later understood by chemists to be predominantly composed of nitrogen. Against Boyle's chemical definition of an element, this demonstration that air is composed of two portions meant that it could no longer be considered to be an element. A similar story can be told for water.

Go to Top Inflammable Air...

In 1766 the English philosopher Henry Cavendish discovered a gas which he called "inflammable air". He found the gas was given off when dilute sulphuric acid was dripped onto zinc, as in Figure 4. On burning the gas in the air, he observed that it formed water droplets. In 1788 Lavoisier repeated Cavendish's experiment and realised that the "inflammable air" reacted with the oxygen in the air to form water. Lavoisier then renamed the "inflammable air" hydrogen after the Greek meaning "water producer". Once again with the chemical definition of an element, this demonstration of water being composed of hydrogen and oxygen meant that water could no longer be considered as an element.

Hydrogen Apparatus
Figure 4: The Apparatus for extracting Hydrogen.

Furthermore, against this new definition, Earth obviously was no longer seen as a pure element, since it embraces a bewildering range of naturally occurring substances. Similarly Ether, an Element that lacks form and substance, was instantly dismissed as having any validity whatsoever. This is why scientific historians are able to describe Ether as "a hypothetical substance, that has no reality".

The combined effect of this definition of a chemical element, along with the applied zeal of the early scientists in making their explorations of the material world, apparently shattered the ancient Elemental cosmology. Within a few decades, several dozen new chemical elements were identified. In retrospect, explaining material composition only in terms of four, possibly five, elements seems incredibly naive! Here is the so called "triumph of reason over the superstitions of the past". Furthermore, students of chemistry today will learn of the existence of 100+ atomic units, known as elements. Thus to the contemporary scientific mind Elemental cosmology seems even more obsolete.

Whilst it is true that in the last three centuries chemistry has made enormous developments in understanding the material world around us, using its insights based upon the chemical definition of an element, it is not true to say that chemistry has triumphed over the naive superstitions of the ancients. This only appears to be true when the chemical definition is projected into the minds and work of the ancient philosophers. This projection in fact constitutes a huge cultural anachronism.

Go to Top Triumph of Reason...?

In stark contrast to the chemist's "triumph of reason over the past", paradoxically it is science that also most compellingly reveals the validity of Elemental knowledge today. It is found in the relatively youthful discipline of ecology – the study of the relationship of living things to their environment and to other species. Ecology breathes new life into Elemental knowledge; however, the Elements are notably disguised as "ecological factors" and include light, heat, moisture, soil and wind.

Generally in the botanical world, soil is the Earth that a plant sinks its roots into, providing anchorage and minerals. Water is the moisture derived from the soil and drawn up from the roots, through the stem and leaves. It provides the turgor pressure that maintains its structure and the medium of its physiology. Fire is the heat and light of the sun, the powerhouse of photosynthesis. Finally wind is Air from which the carbon dioxide for making sugar during photosynthesis is obtained. Where these Elements are in balance, then the quintessential nature of Ether is revealed by the plant flourishing and growing abundantly. By contrast, too much or too little of any one of these Elements severely compromises growth and may even destroy the plant. Ether is unable to become manifest.

It is well recognized that the form and structure of a plant is inseparable from the microclimate of the plant's environment. The most successful plants are the ones whose form has adapted to the specific balance of Elements in their habitat. Ecology well recognizes that the effectiveness of a plant's life cycle is dependant on the scale and strength of these ecological factors.

The ancient philosopher's conception of an Element as one of the universal forces upon which life depends is much greater and more profound than Boyle's intellectual definition. What science has subsequently gained has gained in materialistic knowledge through its chemical definition is in fact inversely proportional to what it has lost in terms of the metaphysical insights of how consciousness is interconnected with the material world.

Nowhere is the inability to understand the relationship of consciousness with matter more acutely shown than the application of materialistic thinking to understanding the functioning of the body. In conventional medicine, the physiology of the body is described with tremendous biochemical detail, but, despite all the technological advances and developments, the more metaphysical aspects of human nature are woefully unanswered, even denied as ever existing in the first place. In spite of all the insights into our DNA and chromosomes that genetics provides, the true nature of life is as illusive as ever. Furthermore, despite psychosomatic medicine recognizing that mental and emotional states have a profound effects on the health of the physical body, the exact mechanism whereby each individual's mental and emotional state contributes to their illness is still inadequately explained.

This is precisely where the metaphysical knowledge of the Elements that enabled physicians to gain their important insights into the functioning of the vital force are once again enormously valuable. This knowledge will enable herbalists, naturopaths, healers, doctors and others involved in the caring professions to gain the mental and emotional perspectives of each individual accompanying their physiological patterns. An awareness of the vital force gradually trains students to intuitively grasp the metaphysical insights that accompany disease and subsequently realize what needs to be done to heal the patterns.

This article is part of a series on Astrology and Health. It is copyright © D. Warren-Davis 2000. All rights reserved.

Now read the following article on the Humours
Back to Health by the Stars
Astrology and Health is a clear and easy guide to how the signs of the zodiac influence our physical and mental well-being. It covers the five elements and how they balance; sun signs and the elements; parts of the body and diseases associated with each sign; visualizations and exercises to aid healing; diseases associated with the planets; herbal medicine; and medical astrology in action. Excellent presentation and value.Astrology and Health:
A Beginner's Guide
by Dylan Warren-Davis.
Published by Headway: Hodder & Stoughton
ISBN 034070518 3
   84 pages
To order your copy click here!
Astrology & Health by Dylan Warren-Davis

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This page was last modified on Thursday, 24 December 2015