Indiana's James Baldwin, though largely self-educated, began teaching at 24. After several years he became superintendent of graded schools in Indiana, a post he held for 18 years. As well as editing school books, he started writing too. After the publication in 1882 of The Story of Siegfried, he went on to write more than 50 others. His influence was widely felt, because of all the school books in use in the United States, at one time over half had been written or edited by him. So far as I know, none of his books are in print today so we have decided to republish selections here, starting with his Old Greek Stories, which, though written for children, make good reading even today..
James Baldwin's The Story of Arachne Old Greek Stories, the Myths Retold...
The story of Arachne as told by Ovid and others in antiquity is a tale of hubris and pride, punished by the gods, but James Baldwin makes it a little more child-friendly. Arachne, a Lydian maiden and the daughter of an artisan, became renowned for her skill in weaving. She boasted that she could outdo Minerva (Athena) in the art, so eventually the goddess took up the challenge, finally turning her into a spider, so that she might weave forever. The stories of the cosmic gods have shaped our culture, our literature, our art and even our religion. A portion of our heritage from the distant past, they form as important a part of our intellectual life as they did of that of the people among whom they originated. This is the fifth of a series of Old Greek Stories by James Baldwin, which will be added to in weeks ahead.
I. The Warp
There was a young girl in Greece whose name was Arachne. Her face was pale but fair, and her eyes were big and blue, and her hair was long and like gold. All that she cared to do from morn till noon was to sit in the sun and spin; and all that she cared to do from noon till night was to sit in the shade and weave.
And oh, how fine and fair were the things which she wove in her loom! Flax, wool, silk–she worked with them all; and when they came from her hands, the cloth which she had made of them was so thin and soft and bright that men came from all parts of the world to see it. And they said that cloth so rare could not be made of flax, or wool, or silk, but that the warp was of rays of sunlight and the woof was of threads of gold.
Then as, day by day, the girl sat in the sun and span, or sat in the shade and wove, she said: “In all the world there is no yarn so fine as mine, and in all the world there is no cloth so soft and smooth, nor silk so bright and rare.”
“Who taught you to spin and weave so well?” someone asked.
“No one taught me,” she said. “I learned how to do it as I sat in the sun and the shade; but no one showed me.”
“But it may be that Athena, the queen of the air, taught you, and you did not know it.”
“Athena, the queen of the air? Bah!” said Arachne. “How could she teach me? Can she spin such skeins of yarn as these? Can she weave goods like mine? I should like to see her try. I can teach her a thing or two.”
She looked up and saw in the doorway a tall woman wrapped in a long cloak. Her face was fair to see, but stern, oh, so stern! and her gray eyes were so sharp and bright that Arachne could not meet her gaze.
“Arachne,” said the woman, “I am Athena, the queen of the air, and I have heard your boast. Do you still mean to say that I have not taught you how to spin and weave?”
“No one has taught me,” said Arachne; “and I thank no one for what I know;” and she stood up, straight and proud, by the side of her loom.
“And do you still think that you can spin and weave as well as I?” said Athena.
Arachne’s cheeks grew pale, but she said: “Yes. I can weave as well as you.”
“Then let me tell you what we will do,” said Athena. “Three days from now we will both weave; you on your loom, and I on mine. We will ask all the world to come and see us; and great Jupiter, who sits in the clouds, shall be the judge. And if your work is best, then I will weave no more so long as the world shall last; but if my work is best, then you shall never use loom or spindle or distaff again. Do you agree to this?” “I agree,” said Arachne.
“It is well,” said Athena. And she was gone.
II. The Woof
When the time came for the contest in weaving, all the world was there to see it, and great Jupiter sat among the clouds and looked on.
Arachne had set up her loom in the shade of a mulberry tree, where butterflies were flitting and grasshoppers chirping all through the livelong day. But Athena had set up her loom in the sky, where the breezes were blowing and the summer sun was shining; for she was the queen of the air.
Then Arachne took her skeins of finest silk and began to weave. And she wove a web of marvelous beauty, so thin and light that it would float in the air, and yet so strong that it could hold a lion in its meshes; and the threads of warp and woof were of many colors, so beautifully arranged and mingled one with another that all who saw were filled with delight.
“No wonder that the maiden boasted of her skill,” said the people.
And Jupiter himself nodded.
Then Athena began to weave. And she took of the sunbeams that gilded the mountain top, and of the snowy fleece of the summer clouds, and of the blue ether of the summer sky, and of the bright green of the summer fields, and of the royal purple of the autumn woods,–and what do you suppose she wove?
The web which she wove in the sky was full of enchanting pictures of flowers and gardens, and of castles and towers, and of mountain heights, and of men and beasts, and of giants and dwarfs, and of the mighty beings who dwell in the clouds with Jupiter. And those who looked upon it were so filled with wonder and delight, that they forgot all about the beautiful web which Arachne had woven. And Arachne herself was ashamed and afraid when she saw it; and she hid her face in her hands and wept.
“Oh, how can I live,” she cried, “now that I must never again use loom or spindle or distaff?”
And she kept on, weeping and weeping and weeping, and saying, “How can I live?”
Then, when Athena saw that the poor maiden would never have any joy unless she were allowed to spin and weave, she took pity on her and said:
“I would free you from your bargain if I could, but that is a thing which no one can do. You must hold to your agreement never to touch loom or spindle again. And yet, since you will never be happy unless you can spin and weave, I will give you a new form so that you can carry on your work with neither spindle nor loom.”
Then she touched Arachne with the tip of the spear which she sometimes carried; and the maiden was changed at once into a nimble spider, which ran into a shady place in the grass and began merrily to spin and weave a beautiful web.
I have heard it said that all the spiders which have been in the world since then are the children of Arachne; but I doubt whether this be true. Yet, for aught I know, Arachne still lives and spins and weaves; and the very next spider that you see may be she herself.